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How To Deal With the Contradictions of the Current Hog and Environmental Protection

     Nongyan saying, "pigs do not make money, look back at the field." Traditional individual pig, pig manure to field, is a very good manure, no pollution. But with the development of large-scale pig, a large number of swine waste concentrate discharge inadequately treated, will inevitably pollute the environment. Currently the country especially in the southeast coastal economically developed areas, pigs and environmental conflicts to increase, "limited support order", "no custody order" and force the split-shift is unusual to see. This result, there are four major reasons:
     1. understanding of the seriousness of the pig farm pig manure effluent is less than a big appetite, excreta, high concentrations of sewage waste. A population of 6,000 farms, feed daily consumption of about 12 tons, about 12 tons of pig manure produced, 19 tons pig urine, sewage from about 70 tons to 150 tons, emissions greatly. Emissions of a million head of farm emissions equivalent to 2.5 million people. In addition, the high concentration of COD pig manure, pig manure about 21000mg / l, pig urine about 18000mg / l, sewage about 12000mg / l. Many government departments and large pig farmers and pig manure wastewater pollution emissions of a serious lack of sufficient knowledge, so that regardless of just pig sewage, after pollution.
     2, farm site selection error July 1, 2006 start implementation of the "People's Republic of China Animal Husbandry Law" states: prohibited in the core areas and buffer zones of drinking water source protection areas, scenic spots and nature reserves, urban residential, cultural and educational scientific research areas such as population concentration areas livestock farms and farming community building. However, due to the early and even to many places there is no ban on raising area planning animal husbandry, limited to support district and suitable culture area, so there is a lot of scale pig farm built in the forbidden zone.
     3, a serious shortage of farm investment in environmental protection, process facilities, inadequate scale pig farm a lot of waste water must be treated can be transformed into fertilizer, energy (biogas), and other materials can be used, which requires investment. Foreign farms are generally used for 20% to 25% of the investment total investment of environmental protection, and most of our farms less than 10% investment in environmental protection. Now build a ten thousand farms with a total investment of 800 yuan to 10 million yuan, 800,000 yuan investment in environmental protection reached 100 million are very small. Inadequate investment, technology infrastructure is certainly imperfect, waste water treatment and can not be fully utilized, "discharge" is just empty talk.
     4, the scale is too large, beyond the carrying capacity of the environment, even if the construction scale pig farms in suitable culture area, there is also the problem of environmental carrying capacity, size and environment to match. After the pig manure nearby sewage treatment must take advantage of, especially the sewage, or high transport costs. Now pig manure wastewater treatment and use of technology are many different processes in different regions, matching the requirements of environmental space is different. Good place for vegetable, fish ponds, orchards, tea plantations, pasture and other agricultural land are pig manure, biogas, biogas, of course, an appropriate amount of administration is very important. Some places due to lack of knowledge, the blind expansion of herd sizes, engage millions of head of pig county. Residential city, large-scale pig manure unable nearby sewage treatment and utilization, which is another important reason for the intensification of pig farming and environmental protection. Government and pig farmers to work together to solve the contradiction between the pig and environmental responsibilities of key government an important pig industry in our national economy, the government is duty-bound to support the pig industry. Government support for the pig industry, content is very wide, to solve environmental problems is just one pig and an important part. To solve the problem of the pig and environmental protection, government departments have first act, but from the long-term sake, do not use piecemeal, short-sighted behavior of piecemeal.
The main work of government departments has three aspects:
     1, as soon as the forbidden zone planning defined animal husbandry, limited to support district and suitable support zone. ANIMAL planning as soon as possible to define the forbidden zone, limited to support district and suitable support zone is the solution to the pig and environmental contradictory imperative that government planning departments at all levels should attach great importance to the agenda as soon as possible. Scale pig farms developed rapidly in recent years, in the forbidden zone, limited to support district situation easily build field unusual to see, a few years will face difficulties demolition, both costly, and affect social harmony.
      2, increase the new and old farms efforts to support environmental projects. The government must increase the new farm environmental protection project construction and old farms engineered to support environmental protection efforts. Pig manure sewage treatment and utilization engineering time investment is large, if you want to build a better project, a ten thousand farms about 100 million yuan of investment, if there is no government funding, pig enterprises is difficult to bear. After completion of the general operating costs are not high, and fertilizer, biogas power generation can generate income. Therefore, the Government only once funded projects. Even the government-owned payment, a 20-year run pig farms, slaughter 200,000 pigs per pig government funding is only 5 yuan. China's existing old farm due to lack of investment in environmental protection, most of the technology infrastructure is imperfect, emissions of non-compliance, so the old farm support environmental transformation project more urgent, governments should put in place, to be resolved. Whether new or old field environmental engineering field support, the government should use the regular, standardized, to ensure open, fair, equitable, we must solve the problem, some farms to avoid the diversion of government special funds for other purposes.
      3, to the ban on raising area, limited support area evicted sufficient compensation and grace. Some local governments use their powers in violation of state property law, in total disregard of the forbidden zone, limited to support district relocatees difficult to compensation few very short time, so the relocatees miserable. At the same time due to forced evictions caused by the conflict, seriously damaged the government's image and social harmony. Today is the primary responsibility to protect the environment at all levels of government, the central issue is the development of science. All the ban on raising the demolition area farms and limited support in the region part demolished farms is absolutely necessary, should be resolutely implemented. But in the course of implementation, must give adequate compensation and resettlement relocatees time. Many old farms are pig farmers all his possessions savings of many years, and some have a lot of debt, if the compensation is insufficient, they will be difficult to survive, it is difficult to build a new field to continue production. Further pig production has its particularity, from sow pregnancy, childbirth to care, even if the listing should foster Inae nearly six months, during which time the demolition more difficult, risky, greater losses. So for the demolition of the farm should have a grace period of a minimum of six months or more.
Responsibility for proper settlement of the pig pig farmers and environmental conflicts, responsibility pig farmers, pig farmers should do the following three main areas:  
      1, awareness, attention to environmental protection. First of all pigs pig farmers big appetite, stool, high concentrations of waste water CDO serious pollution have a full understanding, not just pig regardless of environmental protection. Further environmental protection is a matter of sustainable development and future generations of the event, pig farmers should be highly valued.
      2, the new farm to choose the right site, improve design, control scale. Pig production is a long-term industrial and infrastructure investment, the relocation is not always possible, so the new farm, is essential selected sites, preferably in suitable culture area. If there have been no demarcation livestock farming region, the site should consciously away (5 km) ban on raising area, the other not only with village-level contact, must be agreed at or above the county planning department site. Some farms dealing only with towns, farms built up, and because the county planning departments, environmental protection and other grounds upon cessation or removal, these are hard lessons.
       Farms close (within 3 km) area of ​​agricultural production should be sufficient to receive product piggery waste water treatment, which is an important factor in site selection. Environmental engineering design, construction should be synchronized with the farm's design, construction. First, do a good job of environmental engineering design, to employ a pig manure wastewater treatment experienced designers to design. Some farms selected design unit a great reputation, but has never done farm environmental engineering design, make the results of the design is very unreasonable, meet environmental protection requirements, a waste of money and time. (Table 2) these processes process is simple, mature, reliable operation and low operating costs. Pig manure sewage treatment works is no uniform standard model, according to local conditions, discharge is the most basic two. New farm environmental construction must step generally pig farm from the intake to less than full column of the year, environmental projects and be completed and farm construction, while production side of the building concept is wrong. Control pig size (population less than 2000) or the use of the company (production piglet, feed, veterinary services) + farmers (breeding pigs) model, the size of breeding factory dispersed, this is the pig and resolve environmental conflicts a good way.
       3, the old farm environmental engineering. Old farm environmental situation should be treated differently. First, if the farm belonging to the forbidden zone or area must be limited to support the demolition, do not illusions, as soon as possible in consultation with the government relocation compensation, if appropriate support area farms in the area do not have to relocate or limited support, it is necessary to completely disposable resolved. Many local governments (particularly in the eastern region) of the farm environment construction and renovation have some support. Old farm pig farmers should take the initiative to contact the environmental authorities and nearby farmers, to find a good specialist, house long stroke, according to local conditions, to develop a reasonable transformation process, environmental engineering work is completed as soon as possible, the only way to ease the pig.

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